Education for freedom 1

Read, Write, and Do Something

Education for freedom 2

Read, Write, and Do Something

Education for freedom 3

Read, Write, and Do Something

Education for freedom 4

Read, Write, and Do Something.

Education for freedom 5

Read, Write, and Do Something

27/11/13

RUMAH PENGETAHUAN WARGA DAN REDUKSI KEMISKINAN

Syamsu Alam*)


Saat ekonomi Global mengalami kontraksi. Ekonomi Indonesia justru tumbuh mengesankan, pertumbuhan ekonomi Indonesia justru meningkat mencapai 6,5 persen. Tahun 2014, Indonesia diprediksi masuk jajaran 15 negara dengan PDB di atas satu trilyun dollar. Bahkan, lembaga pemeringkat ekonomi Fitch percaya bahwa akhir tahun 2013, Indonesia yang selama ini dikenal sebagai negara penghutang, bisa menjadi negara pemberi hutang. Hal serupa juga terjadi di Sulawesi Selatan,  laju pertumbuhan ekonomi di Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan mengalami peningkatan cukup signifikan melebihi 8 persen, atau di atas angka pertumbuhan ekonomi rata-rata secara nasional. Namun pertumbuhan ini dinilai belum berkualitas, khususnya dalam mereduksi kemiskinan.

Berbagai fakta empirik yang mengiris hati  masih menghiasi etalase media. Misalnya di Pontianak seorang Ibu membakar diri bersama anaknya karena tidak mampu lagi membeli beras untuk sekadar makan. Kasus kelaparan yang menewaskan seorang ibu dan anaknya di Makassar. Praktik bullying di sekolah-sekolah juga kerap menimpah siswa-siswi miskin hingga ada yang gantung diri karena sering diejek oleh temannya menunggak uang sekolah, serta jutaan anak kehilangan kesempatan belajar karena harus menanggung beban ekonomi keluarga. Potret sosial tersebut jika dibiarkan berlangsung lama, bukan tidak mungkin berpotensi menyebabkan kekacauan sosial.

Permasalahan kemiskinan bersifat multi dimensional dan  bukan hanya sekedar masalah ekonomi yang berkaitan dengan kemampuan untuk memperoleh pendapatan maupun kemampuan membeli  barang dan jasa. Paul Shaffer (2008), perkembangan pemikiran dan perhatian terhadap aspek kemiskinan menunjukkan perubahan mendasar dimana konsep kemiskinan semakin luas  (bukan hanya  physiological deprivations, tetapi juga mencakup  social deprivations), penyebab kemiskinan semakin luas (termasuk sosial, politik, budaya, kekerasan dan sumber daya alam), dan fokus kemiskinan semakin dalam (mencakup hingga strategi perlindungan sosial, mitigasi dan pengurangan resiko).   Hal tersebut selaras dengan pemikiran peraih Nobel Amartya Sen yang mengungkapkan bahwa seseorang yang miskin menderita akibat keterbatasan kemampuan  (capabilities), kesempatan  (opportunities) dan kebebasan  (freedoms). Bahkan secara sederhana kemiskinan juga disebabkan karena adanya kesenjangan pengetahuan.

Pemerintah berupaya mereduksi kesmiskinan dengan triple track strategy yang disempurnakan menjadi four track strategy pada kabinet Indonesia Bersatu II, Pro-poor, Pro-job, Pro-Growth, dan Pro-environment. Sebuah niat baik untuk mengatasi suatu meta-masalah kemiskinan. Untuk itu maka anggaran yang dialokasi untuk program pengentasan kemiskinan tersebut  terus meningkat dari Rp. 35,1 trilyun (2005) menjadi Rp. 66,2 trilyun (2009) dan 94 trilyun (2012), serta telah dialokasikan sebesar Rp 106,8 trilyun pada APBN TA 2013. Namun niat saja tidak cukup, karena sebuah strategi yang jitu semestinya teruji efektif dan efisien secara empirik.

Pemerintah daerah di seluruh Indonesia mencoba menerjemahkan ke dalam setiap visi daerah. Sulawesi Selatan menerjemahkan dengan "pemenuhan hak dasar" yang ingin tampil menjadi sepuluh besar dalam pemenuhan hak dasar dengan program andalan Pendidikan dan Kesehatan Gratis di Sulawesi Selatan (RPJMD 2008-2013).

Niat dan upaya baik pemerintah perlu direspon positif dan proporsional. Terlepas dari capaian kualitas pendidikan Sul-Sel, setidaknya program tersebut telah berhasil menyelamatkan beberapa keluarga miskin tidak putus sekolah. Para kepala daerah berlomba berinovasi program untuk mendekatkan pelayanan ke masyarakat. Ide dan inovasi kepala daerah seharusnya mampu diterjemahkan oleh setiap aparatur pemerintahan, bahkan setiap elemen dalam masyarakat. Disinilah pentingnya sinkronisasi antara pemerintah, masyarakat dan swasta untuk berinovasi mengatasi masalah kemiskinan.

Inovasi saja tdk cukup. Berbagai jurnal, buku dan laporan hasil penelitian tentang Inovasi strategi mereduksi kemiskinan telah dipublikasikan secara luas. Baik melalui media cetak, media online dan elektronik, namun belum banyak komunitas warga yang bisa mengimitasi secara baik praktik cerdas yang dilakukan oleh berbagai kolektif warga dibelahan dunia lain. Misalnya BUMDes yang seyogyanya mampu menjadi lokomotif ekonomi warga desa, justru ada gejala tersandera oleh proses demokrasi lokal yang salah kaprah.

Oleh karena itu semestinya Perguruan Tinggi memberi kontribusi riil yang bukan hanya menggelar seminar untuk kepala-kepala daerah dan LSM sebagai salah satu pilar demokrasi dapat berperan secara proaktif untuk mendampingi warga bukan hanya sekedar menjadikan semacam "proyeknisasi kesmiskinan" sebagaimana gejala-gejala yang banyak menjangkitii kondisi intenal LSM-LSM lokal (Desa/Kecamatan/Kabupaten). Jika gejala ini kian merebak dan menghinggapi sebagian besar para agen yang merasa "pejuang demokrasi" maka bukan hanya warga yang perlu audit sosial tetapi LSM juga perlu masuk bengkel untuk mereorientasi visi ber-LSM.

Hal di atas menjadi penting karena ada falsafah yang mengatakan bahwa "jika Anda tidak memiliki, maka pasti Anda tidak mungkin bisa memberi". Bagaimana mungkin kita (baca:NGO) berupaya memperjuangkan tegaknya demokrasi (kesetaraan dalam mengakses fasilitas publik, transparansi dan keadilan) kalau kita sendiri mencederai asas-asas demokrasi. Disinilah pentingnya ruang berbagi pengetahuan antar warga, ruang belajar menjadi subjek dalam menyelesaikan masalah yang dihadapi.

Praktik langsung (Learning by doing) adalah intisari Rumah Pengetahuan Warga. Inovasi praktik cerdas warga daerah yang disosialisasikan dan direproduksi oleh berbagai aktor pro-demokrasi (Misalnya Perguruan tinggi, NGO, dll) sebisa mungkin fesiable/dapat diterapkan secara langsung. Disinilah peran penting pendampingan warga. Bagaimana setiap aktor dapat mengaktifkan kembali pusat-pusat pengetahuan di Desa-desa. Kenapa di desa? Karena jumlah penduduk miskin di Sulawesi Selatan banyak tersebar di desa-desa. Membangun relasi sosial yang lebih baik yang telah direduksi oleh lembaga-lembaga struktural/non-struktural yang dibentuk oleh pemerintah yang kerap bersifat "anti-kritik", empati sosial yang tergerus oleh  'kebablasan' menghadapi kemajuan teknologi dan informasi. Mengembalikan peran sekolah sebagai tempat belajar warga. Penting pula untuk mentransformasi masjid-masjid yang sekuler menjadi pusat-pusat keilmuan, sebagai tempat belajar menyelesaikan masalah sosial kemasyarakatan, masalah-masalah yang dihadapi petani, masalah pendidikan anak, bahkan boleh jadi sharing seputar teknologi bertani, pembiayaan bercocok tanam dan lain-lain. Dengan intervensi dari berbagai pihak membangun ruang-ruang berbagi informasi dan pusat pengetahuan warga desa akan terbangun solidaritas dan empati sosial yang kini menjadi barang langka. Dengan mendekatkan pusat-pusat pengetahuan dengan warga bukan tidak mungkin masalah yang seusia umur umat manusia dapat direduksi.

*)   |@alamyin

24/09/13

Learning English- Smart Audio Text 1


Belajar kian makin mudah dengan makin merebaknya Smartphone. Dengan perangkat portable bisa belajar dimana saja. Slah satu cara Learning English yang banyak dianjurkan oleh para pakar adalah listening Audio-Text. Mendengarkan sekaligus memperhatikan text. Dengan cara ini, kita bisa belajar 3 keahlian sekaligus : Listening, Grammar dan Pronounciation.


Alamyin.com akan memposting secara berkala Audio dan Text yang dikoleksi dari VOA, BritishCouncil ataupun Audio-book dari youtube. Semoga bermanfaat. 

1. Art-of-mingling

If All Else Fails at a Party, Throw Yourself on the Mercy of the Crowd

AA: I'm Avi Arditti with Rosanne Skirble, and this week on Wordmaster: If mixing with people at parties leaves you at a loss for words, writer Jeanne Martinet offers some help in an updated edition of her popular book "The Art of Mingling."

RS: "Give us some tips -- what works?"
Jeanne Martinet
JEANNE MARTINET: "Well, what doesn't work is that you should never walk up to somebody and ask them right away what they do for a living. It's not only sort of rude, and it's sort of like 'who are you, are you worth my time?' But it's also bringing up a conversation that you don't know what you're bringing up.

"There's an opening technique that I call the 'flattery entrée,' which works very well if that person has an unusual pair of earrings or tie on. You can walk up to somebody and say 'Hey, I really like that pair of earrings' and you get into it that way. I think the mistake that people make is they think that the only way to talk to people is to ask them questions. And while that's good to do within a conversation, it's actually less threatening to open with something that's more of an observation.

"One of the reasons that people, I think, are afraid to approach strangers at parties is they're really afraid of what happens if something bad does, you know, occur. And if you know that you can escape from anyone, it actually makes you much less afraid to talk to people in the first place.

"So, you know, you'll try and talk to someone and it doesn't work very well, and maybe you get the idea they really would rather go back to the conversation they were having or something, in which case you can do one of many escape techniques that can help you save face -- or even get you away from someone that you discover that you don't want to talk to."

AA: "For example?"
JEANNE MARTINET: "Like, you know, the 'buffet bye-bye' -- what my cute name for 'well, I've really got to get a drink' or 'I'm starving -- that thing you're eating is making me even more hungry. I'll be back.' You can even say 'I'll be back' and never come back. At a party you're allowed to do that."

AA: "Now let me ask you about -- I know in every culture certain subjects are maybe off-limits or you really shouldn't [talk about them] unless you know a person well. So, thinking about in American culture, three that come to mind are money, religion and politics -- "
JEANNE MARTINET: "Yes!"

AA: "What do you think about that."
JEANNE MARTINET: "The two safe subjects used to be your health and the weather. Well, the weather now leads you to topics of global warming -- at least it does [for] me -- and your health, you can easily start talking about health insurance, and before you know it you are in the areas of politics. So I outline in the book ways to test for people who might be fanatics in certain areas, so you can really stay away, and also 'defuse' and 'escape' lines."

RS: "What would be some of those -- you talked a little bit about escape lines, but you're in an argument or you find yourself close to an argument, how do you get out of it?"
JEANNE MARTINET: "Well, most of them are sort of cute lines which are just tension-defusing lines like 'well, I guess we can't solve the world's problems in one day.' Or you say, if it's really gotten heated and you feel up to this particular kind of humor, you can say, 'Well, you know, if we talk about this anymore, we're going to have to step outside.'"

RS: "All right, let's put a context here. We have a student, a foreign student, in the United States or elsewhere [who is] with a group of Americans and wants to mingle. What kind of advice would you give to this person [about] how to start and how to go through his day?"

JEANNE MARTINET: "If you're talking about mingling at a gathering of a lot of people, I've often used this when I'm feeling particularly out of my element and I don't know anybody, I will go up to someone or a group of people and say: 'Hi, my name is Jeanne Martinet and I don't know a single soul at this party.'

"That is really -- really, basically to throw yourself in a little bit asking for help from other people, is usually not a bad idea because it kind of endears you to the people and it usually gives you a warm response. People who are really shy can try using what I call the 'fade-in,' which is where you go up to the periphery of a group of people and listen carefully to what's being said, and then just adding in your two cents when it's appropriate.
RS: "Jeanne, this takes courage."

JEANNE MARTINET: "It doesn't; it takes practice. It's funny, because once you do it a couple of times, like if somebody who just listening to me saying this, would just use that approach that I said, where they walked up to somebody and said 'you know, I don't know a single person at this party,' when they get this response that they will get, -- nine times out of ten it will be a wonderful like 'oh, this is so-and-so and please let us show -- I'll introduce you to Joe over here.' And when that happens, and that happens a couple of times, you will start to lose your fear.

"Everybody is just as afraid as they are. That's the other one of my mingling survival rules is that nobody is thinking about you, they're only thinking about themselves. So it's sort of helpful to remember this to become less self-conscious."

AA: But Jeanne Martinet, the author of "The Art of Mingling," says you should also remember not to monopolize people at parties, or you could be seen as a "barnacle." In general, she says, spend five to fifteen minutes chatting, then move on.

RS: And that's Wordmaster for this week. You can find lots more advice about communicating in our archives at voanews.com/wordmaster. And our e-mail address is word@voanews.com. With Avi Arditti, I'm Rosanne Skirble.

 
2. would have said


 AA I'm Avi Arditti with Rosanne Skirble, and this week on WORDMASTER: We meet the 24-year-old creator of the website wouldhavesaid.com.

RS: The premise is simple. People submit letters saying the things they would have said to a person if they had the chance. Jackie Hooper got the idea for the project in March of last year, when actress Natasha Richardson hit her head during a ski lesson and died from a brain injury.

JACKIE HOOPER: "I'm not entirely sure why it affected me in the way that it did. But it brought all of these emotions about how people leave our lives so quickly, and a lot of the times it's very unexpected, and how at those moments I feel like there's so much that a person would want to say to the person who passed away unexpectedly.

"I started locally and I went to retirement homes, jails, schools, and asked them to think of these kinds of situations. I didn't want to limit it to, you know, unexpected deaths because it doesn't always apply to people. But just things, you know, if people left your life, if you lost contact with them, what might you have said to them. Would you like to apologize or thank them for something?"

RS: "What did you find when you went to these places?"

JACKIE HOOPER: "That people had so much to say! You know, when I started, I knew, I felt like it was a good idea and that it would be beneficial for people. But, you know, I didn't know how people would respond, if they would want to share those kinds of personal, deep feelings with some stranger.

"And, you know, a lot of people in the jails wrote about broken relationships they had with their parents, or a wife that they left, and, you know, explain the situation of how they got to jail and how they wish they could done so many things differently so that they didn't end up there.

"And kids, surprisingly, I mean, some people question whether or not they've experienced enough to be able to write these kinds of letters. And, you know, kids write to dads. One little girl wrote to her dad asking him to stop drinking so much and stop having so many different girlfriends. So it's, you know, pretty powerful stuff no matter the age."

AA: "What have you noticed about, or have you noticed, sort of dominant themes that keep coming up over and over again?"

JACKIE HOOPER: "The biggest one  I've noticed -- and I really, I mean there's at least three or four a week that I get that are written to fathers. It's not to parents, it's to fathers, and then just overall to parents, grandparents.

"Lately I've been getting a lot to people, like if they bullied someone in high school and felt really bad about it now. And I really love those kinds of letters because not only does it show that it doesn't have to be someone who passed away, but it shows just the idea of regret and how to these people it feels so fresh in their minds."

AA: "How many letters a day are submitted to your site?"

JACKIE HOOPER: "It definitely varies. If there's, you know, a lot of discussion around it, if there's an article written or something, I can get fifty a day. No matter what happens, I still get a few each day."

RS: "We can see from your website that there's lot of options here, you can submit a letter, you can follow you on Twitter, you can be a fan on Facebook, and a number of other things. so you're using the new media to advance your ideas."

AA: "Yeah, actually, in terms of ages, I'm curious, have you noticed trends in who's submitting, by age group?"

JACKIE HOOPER: "At first it was a lot of middle-aged, older women. But now it's kind of, I think because it's growing on social media-type websites, I'm getting much younger, college-aged submissions."

RS: Jackie Hooper knows that some people may be trying to relieve themselves of guilt over something they said. But she says they are also trying to offer a lesson.

JACKIE HOOPER: "They know that they've said it and that they can't do anything about it, really, you know, if they can't reach the person. But this does help them on a personal level kind of express it and get it out and they really hope that it will help change someone else. Whether they're, you know, being mean to someone or they've said something negative to someone, they just want it to be used as a tool to make people think twice next time."

AA: And has she ever posted her own letters on her site?

JACKIE HOOPER: "Well, I wrote one on the year anniversary of Natasha Richardson's death, kind of to her, saying what great thing has come of such a tragedy."

RS: You can find around 200 letters on wouldhavesaid.com. Jackie Hooper adds another one each day, and has hundreds more submitted on paper for her project.

AA: She has an education degree but isn't sure about a career. She currently works as a law firm receptionist in Portland, Oregon. One goal she is sure of, though, is to publish a book based on some of the letters.

RS: And that's WORDMASTER for this week. With Avi Arditti, I'm Rosanne Skirble.

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